Wetlands filter water and have more birds & wildlife than any other habitat.
The mushrooms of Earth Sanctuary are a key part of the ecology.
There are all sorts of creatures that live at Earth Sanctuary. This is
a painted turtle.
Over 50 bird species make Earth Sanctuary their home. It's a bird watching
Even on the warmest or windiest days, the woods of Earth Sanctuary
on south Whidbey Island are hushed and still. On wet days, rain percolates
through the layers of leaves and needles to drip silently onto fern, salal
and moss. The canopy stretches over acres, sheltering a restoration project
of startling scale. Beneath the branches of firs, hemlocks and alders,
4,800 newly installed native trees and plants are growing up to rejuvenate
land logged over just 20 years ago. Wildlife is flocking to the nature
reserve, finding homes in the quiet ponds, the boggy fen and carefully
preserved tangles of undergrowth.
- Valerie Easton, The Seattle Times
To see videos of the Earth Sanctuary Nature Reserve, visit the Earth
Sanctuary YouTube page.
Overview of Earth Sanctuary's Nature Reserve
The 500-year goal of Earth Sanctuary is to restore and encourage
the forest back to its previous old-growth profile, with mature trees,
many canopy layers, and snags and downed logs that provide ideal habitat
for birds and wildlife.
At Earth Sanctuary, you'll find forests containing Red Alder, Douglas
Fir, and Western Hemlock trees-as well as Grand Fir, Big Leaf Maple,
Sitka Spruce, and Western Red Cedar. Beneath the trees there is a
variety of shrubs, ferns, herbs, mosses, liverworts, mushrooms, and
Earth Sanctuary's Fen is a unique wetland ecosystem containing a
bog surrounded by marsh and moat. The raised bog is a great rarity
in western Washington. The dwarf shrub community is perhaps the most
visually striking plant community of the bog. This community - composed
of abundant heaths, sedges, ferns and even a carnivorous plant, the
sundew - forms a floating mat of consolidated peat. See section 8
of the 500-Year Plan for a report on the bog's ecosystem.
The New Earth Sanctuary Arboretum
Since January, 2009, over 1,300 trees and 500 native plants have
been planted in a cleared area on the East side of Earth Sanctuary.
Here are some of the trees planted there: Siberian spruce, white spruce,
Sitka spruce, sequoia, white pine, ponderosa pine, grand fir, pacific
silver fir, Douglas fir, western red cedar, port Orford cedar,
redwood, black cottonwood, dawn redwood, and western larch.
Birds and Wildlife of Earth Sanctuary
Within the boundaries of Earth Sanctuary lies a rich and unique habitat
that provides refuge for a diverse community of animals. The Earth Sanctuary's
three ponds, known locally as the "Newman Ponds," and their
associated wetland buffers and occupy over 70% of Earth Sanctuary's land.
They've been recognized for their importance as waterfowl habitat and
designated as a "Habitat of Local Importance" by the Whidbey
Audubon Society and the Island County Critical Areas Program.
On any given spring morning at Earth Sanctuary you may see the local
pair of nesting osprey and their new fledglings, adolescent and mature
bald eagle, a great horned owl, wood ducks, killdeer, tree and violet-green
swallows, cinnamon teal and great blue heron, among others.
The forested areas of the Earth Sanctuary provide habitat resources for
as many as 90 species of birds. The aquatic environment of the ponds provides
a significant feeding ground for birds. And the ponds' protected shorelines,
the bog island, as well as the many tree snags (dead and dying trees)
provide wonderful nesting locations for birds. Most of these species are
perching birds (known for their singing), woodpeckers, hummingbirds, owls,
Craig and Joy Johnson have written a great book on Puget
Sound birds - Our Puget Sound Birds & Habitat. There are
many photos from Earth Sanctuary in this book! They also have a web
site on Puget
Sound Backyard Birds.
Breeding Bird Survey
Many thanks to Yvonne Palka and Frances Wood who annually conduct a breeding
bird survey for Earth Sanctuary using criteria established by the Audubon
Society. Over 50 breeding birds were identified from May to July, including:
Great Horned Owl, Barred Owl and Rufous Hummingbird.
See the 2003
breeding bird survey report »
See the 2004
breeding bird survey report »
The ponds, particularly the Middle pond, is extremely rich habitat for
breeding ducks. 10 broods of ducks were observed: Mallard, Hooded Merganser,
Wood Duck, Green-winged Teal, and Cinnamon Teal. Yvonne reports, "At
the high point of baby ducks in mid to late June there were approximately
35 baby ducks feeding and swimming on the central and west ponds. It looked
and felt like a big playground for ducklings with attentive mamas swimming
Bird Nesting Improvement Program
Since early 2002, we have steadily been installing a multitude of bird
nesting boxes, which are commonly known as bird houses. To date, we have
had a successful breeding season which saw two-third's of our nesting
boxes put to use by various types of birds.
Lois Mathews of Whidbey Audubon has written a delightful, illustrated short book entitled “A Walk Through Nature” that talks about her experiences monitoring Wood duck breeding at Earth Sanctuary.
There are about 45 species of mammals likely to inhabit Earth Sanctuary.
Of these, bats, mountain beaver, muskrat, and river otter - those most
dependent on the aquatic habitat - have recently been observed. Small
mammals such as moles, shrews, squirrels, chipmunks, mice, rats, and voles
constitute a large part of the prey base for carnivorous birds, mammals,
The small freshwater ponds at Earth Sanctuary appear to contain two warm
water non-native fish species, large-mouth bass and brown bullhead. Are
there any experts on PNW fish who could consult with us on this project?.
Amphibians and Reptiles
Nine species of amphibians, seven of which require aquatic habitat for
breeding, can be found at the Earth Sanctuary, including the roughskin
newt, northwestern salamander, long-toed salamander, western toad, pacific
tree frog, red-legged frog, and the non-native bullfrog. The large non-native
bullfrog population dominates the amphibian population of the three ponds--and
is known to eat small baby ducks.
Five species of reptiles and a variety of introduced turtle species inhabit
One of the primary goals of Earth Sanctuary is to provide conditions
conducive to a diversity and abundance of animal life. Towards that goal,
Earth Sanctuary is committed to specific forest management strategies
that will enhance wildlife habitat, and in turn, the wildlife population.
500 Year Plan
One of the key goals of work at Earth Sanctuary is to create an optimal
habitat for the maximum diversity and number of birds, wildlife, plants
Because mature old-growth forest fosters the greatest biodiversity,
we have devised a "500-Year
Plan" to acknowledge that the ecological communities of the
Earth Sanctuary will take hundreds of years to recover from past land
use practices and develop into their fullest expression as a diverse
and mature ecosystem. Also, the
500-Year Plan acknowledges the human commitment necessary to preserve,
protect, and restore the Earth Sanctuary landscape over the long term.
The details of the
500-Year Plan are described in an extensive report. This 100-page
document presents the Earth Sanctuary's ecological design process
in four sections: The Earth Sanctuary landscape and land use history.
- The process of delineating and mapping the environmental regulatory
landscape, including wetlands, streams, and ponds.
- An overview of the vegetation, wildlife, and fish surveys we have
conducted - the scientific basis for the ecological design.
- The landscape and restoration design projects.
In addition, the plan includes extensive appendices detailing high-tech
survey techniques; wetland, wildlife, and fish studies; and plant
500-Year Plan was prepared by wetland and river ecologist Kevin
Fetherston. It incorporates contributions on wetlands and vegetation
by Scott D. Miller, on wildlife by Kathryn Kelsey, and on fish by
It is hoped that the
500-Year Plan can serve as an inspiration and model for future
developers and ecologists. It is a real-life project that holistically
integrates the best in ecological study with landscape design, environmental
art, and traditional earth energy studies.
500-Year Plan is divided into the following sections: Section
1- Table of Contents and Introduction
- Section 2 - Site Description and Land Use History
- Section 3 - Wetlands, Streams, and Ponds: Mapping the Regulatory Landscape
- Section 4 - Vegetation, Wildlife, and Fish Surveys
- Section 5 - Landscape and Restoration Design
- Section 6 - Appendix A: Survey Techniques, Geographic Information
System (GIS), and Computer Aided Design (CAD)
- Section 7 - Appendix B: The Earth Sanctuary Vegetation Survey and
- Section 8 - Appendix C: The Earth Sanctuary Bog/Fen Wetland Ecosystem
- Section 9 - Appendix D: Earth Sanctuary Wildlife Report
- Section 10 - Appendix E: Earth Sanctuary Fish Assessment
- Section 11 - Appendix F: Plant List for Artwork Landscape, Riparian
and Forest Restoration Plantings
500-Year Plan document is in PDF format that requires the free
Adobe Acrobat Reader.
Five hundred years from now the restoration of Earth Sanctuary will
be complete. Seventy-two acres of woodlands, wetlands and open water on
Whidbey Island, Earth Sanctuary is a meditation parkland with the goal
of bringing together ancient art forms, a profound connection with nature
and diverse global spiritual traditions.
- Dan Borroff, Earth Sanctuary landscape designer
Writing in the Arboretum Bulletin
Ecology is fundamentally holistic in its vision. Earth Sanctuary seeks
to take this holism a step further, by integrating wisdom drawn from ecological
science with the disciplines of earth energy, spirituality, and healing.
In order to preserve the integrity, stability, and beauty of the biotic
community a design has been developed for Earth Sanctuary that allows
people to engage with nature while protecting and restoring the land's
biodiversity. Thus Earth Sanctuary heals nature as well as the human spirit.
In doing so, a synergy is created. The nature reserve enhances Earth Sanctuary
as a meditation parkland, and the spiritual intention provided by the
parkland supports the healing of nature.
This kind of holistic and complementary ecological design can be seen
at Earth Sanctuary's sacred sites. The sites were designed for meditation,
wildlife habitat, and wildlife viewing. In addition, each was designed
to increase the diversity and complexity of the local forest and aquatic-riparian
herbaceous, shrub and tree buffers.
Consider for example the installation of the Labyrinth: the peninsula
where the labyrinth is located was once dominated by a monoculture of
invasive non-native Himalayan blackberry. Now the labyrinth is surrounded
by a 25-60 foot wide buffer of native wetland herbs, shrubs, and trees.
The pond buffer is designed to increase the local plant species diversity
and vegetation structural complexity, therefore providing greater waterfowl
shoreline habitat. Over the next 5 years the planted aquatic-riparian
shrub buffer will grow to a height of 6-8 feet.
A more ambitious project is the building of the Cottonwood Stone Circle.
Great blue heron frequent the Earth Sanctuary ponds on a regular basis
to feed and rest. They are known to have had a rookery (a colony of nests),
recently abandoned due to disturbance, within 1 mile of the Earth Sanctuary.
To accommodate the herons, the large stone circle has been encircled with
a planting of black cottonwood trees. In 20-30 years these trees will
provide the herons with an excellent spot to build a rookery.
University of Washington Capstone Project
Earth Sanctuary partners with the University
of Washington Restoration Ecology Network(UW-REN). The UW-REN is an
Northwest based system that facilitates the integration of students, faculty,
and members of the community in ecological restoration and conservation.
Each year a group of UW-REN students plan, design, install and thus restore
an area along Newman Road.
Historic logging practices have diminished forest plant diversity and
structure at Earth Sanctuary. The goal of the Sanctuary's forest restoration
is to return it to its natural profile, with a greater presence of conifers
and shrub diversity. Toward that goal, the dominance of overstory Red
Alder and understory Salmonberry is being reduced. This will accelerate
growth rate of existing understory conifers. Felled Red Alder will be
left on the forest floor, which will provide cover and insects for wildlife
as well as returning nutrients to the soil. Likewise, standing dead trees
are being preserved. These "snags" are a major component of
wildlife habitat within the forest.
Two non-native plants, Himalayan Blackberry and English Holly, are established
at Earth Sanctuary. These opportunistic plants thrive in sites like Earth
Sanctuary's where the land has been disturbed by logging. The removal
of these very invasive and aggressive plants (Himalayan blackberry canes
can grow 21 feet in one year) is an important part of the Sanctuary's
work toward vegetation restoration. By removing the non-native species,
space is being created for the reintroduction of rose, thimbleberry and
blueberry species native to this area. The reintroduction of native plants
will increase forest understory diversity and provide berries, nesting
materials, and cover for birds and mammals.